Since the year 2,000 agriculture expanded brutally in Uruguay.
Since then, Uruguay has overcome difficulties in the field of human capital, taking advantage of Argentine know-how especially, and in the logistics and marketing links of the commercial chain, with the presence of international suppliers and exporters. Many cattle lands were converted into agriculture with yields generally growing.
However, important production and climate risks still affect the stability of the crop cycle, especially with regard to summer crops where the risk of moderate or severe drought persists. This is especially relevant in Uruguay because the soils are generally shallower than in the pampas on the Argentine side.
Uruguay is crossed by a vast number of rivers and streams that are an abundant source of water, which can be harnessed for irrigation with relative ease and at reasonable costs.
In many cases, rainwater may be stored in dams that are built on the beds of rivers and streams that cross the fields, taking advantage of the undulating topography. In other cases, water for irrigation can be extracted directly from rivers with appropriate administrative permits, and undergroundwater may also be used.
The two systems most commonly used are the sprinkler system or center pivot, which has a lot of precision in water management but requires very high investment per hectare and laminar or surface irrigation systems which are less accurate in the administration of water resources but require substantially less investment per hectare.